1)a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose.
2)The cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke
3)Hooke's description of these cells (which were actually
non-living cell walls) was published in Micrographia.
4)# Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genetic material,
and reproduce independently from the rest of the cell.
5)The cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in
6)The idea that cells were separable into individual units was
proposed by Ludolph Christian Treviranus
7)cells come from pre-existing cells by division.
8)Credit for the first compound (more than one lens) microscope is
usually given to Zacharias Jansen,
9)Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryotes
10)size of an animal mitochondrion (about 1-2µm in diameter and 10
11)bacterial cells divide by binary fission.
12)A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex
structures inside the membranes.
13)Cell division in eukaryotes involves separating the duplicated
14)Eukaryotic cells include a variety of membrane-bound structures,
collectively referred to as the endomembrane system.
15) Robert Brown reported the discovery of the nucleus.
16)Bacteria serve as decomposers and agents of fermentation,
17)Eukaryotic DNA is divided into several linear bundles called
18)The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells
apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus.
19)brain of cell is nucleus
20)nucleus of prokaryotes is circuloid in nature
21)The cell membrane is the biological membrane separating the
interior of a cell from the outside environment.
22)The cell membrane surrounds all cells and it is semi-permeable
23)cell membrane contain biological molecules, primarily proteins
24)cellular processes include cell adhesion, ion channel
conductance and cell signaling
25)cell wall plays mostly a mechanical support role rather than a
role as a selective boundary
26)fluid mosaic model given by S. J. Singer and Garth Nicolson
27)The cell membrane consists primarily of a thin layer of
28)Proteins in the cell membranes may be integral or peripheral.
29)The cytoskeleton is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton"
contained within the cytoplasm that is made out of protein
30)microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that
interact with the microtubules of the cellular cytoskeleton
31) MAPs bind to the tubulin subunits that make up microtubules to
regulate their stability
32)Microtubules have a diameter of 25 nm and length 200 nanometers
to 25 micrometers.
33)Microtubules are polymers of a- and ß-tubulin dimers.
34)Microtubules are nucleated and organized by the microtubule
35)the term cytoskeleton was first introduced by French
embryologist Paul Wintrebert
36)Microfilaments are the thinnest filaments of the cytoskeleton
37) microfilaments are also called as actin filaments
38)Important component in filament formation is the Arp2/3 complex
39)cilia and flagella help in the process of locomotion
40)An example of a eukaryotic flagellated cell is the sperm cell,
41)Bacterial flagella are helical filaments that rotate like screws
42)The bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin.
43)Bacterial flagella are motorized by a flow of H+ ions
44)Along with cilia, flagella make up a group of organelles known
45)Intraflagellar transport (IFT), the process by which axonemal
subunits, transmembrane receptors, and other proteins are moved up
and down the length of the flagellum.
46)the nucleus referred to as the "control center"
47)nucleus contains most of the cell's genetic material,
48)The nuclear envelope (NE) is a double lipid bilayer that
encloses the genetic material
49) nuclear membrane also known as the perinuclear envelope,
nuclear membrane, nucleolemma or karyotheca
50)Nuclear transport is movement through the pores
51)The nuclear envelope separates the cell's genetic material from
the surrounding cytoplasm.
52)Nuclear pores, provide aqueous channels through the envelope
53)The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an eukaryotic organelle that
forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisternae
54)The surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) is studded
with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance
55)golgi complex was named afterCamillo Golgi
56)The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and
package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids,
57)The Golgi is composed of membrane-bound stacks known as
58)The Golgi plays an important role in the synthesis of
59)The phosphorylation of molecules requires that ATP
60)The vesicles that leave the rough endoplasmic reticulum are
transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus
61)Lysosomes are spherical organelles that contain enzymes called
62)The size of lysosomes varies from 0.1–1.2 µm
63)lysosomes are concerned with programmed cell death, called
64)Peroxisomes are organelles from the microbody family and are
present in almost all eukaryotic cells.
65)Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and other
eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis.
66)chloroplast have the larger size because its membrane is not
folded into cristae
67)Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide,
68)The intermembrane space is the space between the outer membrane
and the inner membrane.
69)ATP synthase, which generates ATP in the matrix
70)Glycosylation is the enzymatic process that links saccharides to
produce glycans, attached to proteins, lipids, or other organic
71)transport that does not need energy passive transport
72)transport that need energy active transport
73)The four main kinds of passive transport are diffusion,
facilitated diffusion, filtration and osmosis.
74)Facilitated diffusion is the movement of molecules across the
cell membrane via special transport proteins
75) the transport protiens are called as carrier protiens
76)Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a selectively
77)In the human body, waste products are removed from the
bloodstream in the kidneys via dialysis, an example of diffusion
78)Active transport is the mediated process of moving particles
across a biological membrane against a concentration gradient.
79)Secondary active transport involves the use of an
80)transport in one direction at the same time as another substance
is being cotransported in the other direction. called antiport.
81)Symport is the name if two substrates are being transported in
the same direction across the membrane.
82)A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that is capable of
moving protons across the membrane of a cell, mitochondrion, or
other subcellular compartment.
83)Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb molecules
84)Phagocytosis is the process by which cells ingest food material
85)Pinocytosis is also called as cell-drinking.
86)enzymes involved in the electron transport chain are ubiquinone
87)The term docking refers to the holding of two membranes within a
bilayer's distance of one another
88)lysosomes are referred to as suicidal bags
89)The Fo F1 ATP synthase of mitochondria, in contrast, usually
conduct protons from high to low concentration
90)The permeases are membrane transport proteins,
91)Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into
two or more daughter cells.
92)This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis
93)Cell division also enables asexually reproducing organisms to
develop from the one-celled zygote,
94)In humans this occurs on average, after 52 divisions,
95)limit of divisions to 52 known as the Hayflick limit
96)An enzyme called telomerase, present in large quantites in
cancerous cells, rebuilds the telomeres
97)cell nucleus into two identical sets in two nuclei in mitosis
98)Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase
99)longer phase of cell cycle intephase
100)Formation of phragosome in proprophase
101)microtubules find and attach to kinetochores in prometaphase
102)Telophase is a reversal of prophase and prometaphase events
103)Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of
104)meiosis is a process of reductional division in which the
number of chromosomes
105)Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and therefore
occurs in all eukaryotes
106)The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events
that takes place in a cell
107)The cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G1 phase, S
phase (synthesis), G2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and
M phase (mitosis).
108)Resting phase is G0 phase
109)cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's
progress through the cell cycle.
110)CDKs perform a common biochemical reaction called
phosphorylation that activates or inactivates target proteins
111)cellular differentiation is the process by which a less
specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
112)Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape,
membrane potential, metabolic activity
113)A cell that is able to differentiate into many cell types is
known as pluripotent.
114)A cell that is able to differentiate into all cell types is
known as totipotent
115)In cytopathology, the level of cellular differentiation is used
as a measure of cancer progression
116)# Hematopoietic stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone
marrow that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and
117)Mesenchymal stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone marrow
that give rise to stromal cells, fat cells, and types of bone cells
118)# Epithelial stem cells (progenitor cells) that give rise to
the various types of skin cells
119)Muscle satellite cells (progenitor cells) that contribute to
differentiated muscle tissue
120)Dedifferentiation is a cellular process often seen in more
basal life forms such as worms and amphibians
121) In mammals, the zygote and the embryo during early stages of
development are totipotent
122)Pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into
multipotent progenitor cells
123)Germ line cells are any line of cells that give rise to gametes
124) artificial skin is an example of stem cell aplication
125)a hollow sphere of cells, called a blastocyst
126) stemcells and meristematic cells in plants constitute
127)inner cell mass will go on to form virtually all of the tissues
of the human body
128)multipotent progenitor cells that then give rise to functional
129)dedifferentiation is an aberration of the normal development
cycle that results in cancer
130)RNA molecules are an important type of intracellular
differentiation control signal.
131)Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication
that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions
132)Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for
133)Cells communicate with each other via direct contact called
134)Cells communicate over short distances paracrine signaling
135)Cells communicate over large distances and/or scales endocrine
136)The Notch signaling mechanism is an example of juxtacrine
137)Endocrine signals are called hormones
138)Hormones are produced by endocrine cells and they travel
through the blood to reach all parts of the body.
139)Paracrine signals target only cells in the vicinity of the
140)Neurotransmitters are ligands that are capable of binding to
ion channel proteins
141)Ligand-gated ion channel receptors are a class of receptor that
may occur both at the cell-surface or intracellularly.
142)Cell-surface receptors are integral transmembrane proteins and
recognize the vast majority of extracellular signaling molecules.
143) eukaryotic cells, most intracellular proteins activated by a
ligand/receptor interaction possess an enzyme caled tyrosine kinase
144)cAMP is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and used for
intracellular signal transduction
145)cAMP is synthesised from ATP by adenylyl cyclase
146)In the species Dictyostelium discoideum, the chemotactic
movement of cells is organized by periodic waves of cAMP that
propagate through the cell
147)Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide
derived from guanosine triphosphate
148)cGMP is a common regulator of ion channel conductance,
149)chemoreceptor, is a sensory receptor that transduces a chemical
signal into an action potential.
150)Second messengers are molecules that relay signals received at
receptors on the cell surface
151)Cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of
the transformed cells
152)Carcinoma: Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells
153)Sarcoma: Malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or
154)Lymphoma and leukemia: Malignancies derived from hematopoietic
155)Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens,
156)he process of cell change in which ,a cell loses its ability to
control its rate of division, and thus becomes a tumour cell, is
called cell transformation.
157)Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats
158)necrosis, is a form of traumatic cell death that results from
acute cellular injury,
159) telomerase enzyme allows for replacement of short bits of DNA
known as telomeres
160)Embryonic stem cells express telomerase, which allows them to
divide repeatedly and form the individual.
161)SMAC binds to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and
162)Cell shrinkage and rounding are shown because of the breakdown
of the proteinaceous cytoskeleton by caspases.
163)The removal of dead cells by neighboring phagocytic cells has
been termed efferocytosis
164)Angiogenesis is a physiological process involving the growth of
new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels
165)Sprouting angiogenesis was the first identified form of
166)Intussusception, also known as splitting angiogenesis, was
first observed in neonatal rats
167)Formation of vascular structures from circulating or
tissue-resident endothelial stem cells is called vasculogenesis
168)spread of a disease from one organ or part to another
non-adjacent organ or part is called metastasis
169)Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer.
170)Proto-oncogene: A normal gene which, when altered by mutation,
becomes an oncogene