Wednesday, November 18, 2009

cellbiology-fob- 1st chapter-btechbiotechnology-jntu syllabus

The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and is often called the building block of life.[1] Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.[2]

In 1835, before the final cell theory was developed, Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, that vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.[3]

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive term for the smallest living biological structure was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.
All cells have several different abilities:[5]

* Reproduction by cell division: (binary fission/mitosis or meiosis).
* Use of enzymes and other proteins coded for by DNA genes and made via messenger RNA intermediates and ribosomes.
* Metabolism, including taking in raw materials, building cell components, converting energy, molecules and releasing by-products. The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules. This energy is released and then used in metabolic pathways.
* Response to external and internal stimuli such as changes in temperature, pH or levels of nutrients.
* Cell contents are contained within a cell surface membrane that is made from a lipid bilayer with proteins embedded in it.

Some prokaryotic cells contain important internal membrane-bound compartments,[6] but eukaryotic cells have a specialized set of internal membrane compartments.

also include about components of cell and organells of the cell,,growth , division of the cell, about the protien synthesis by the cell.
the entire details describes cell biology

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