Sunday, October 11, 2009

intracellular signalling -cellbiology-cellsignalling-btechbiotechnology-2-1

Cell signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions.[1] The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be yielded.
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell. Steroid hormones act through intracellular (mostly nuclear) receptors and are thus considered as intracrines. In contrast, peptide or protein hormones generally act as endocrines, autocrines or paracrines by binding to their receptors present on the cell surface. Several peptide/protein hormones or their isoforms also act inside the cell through different mechanisms. These peptide/protein hormones which have intracellular functions are also called intracrines. The term 'intracrine' is thought to be originally coined to represent peptide/protein hormones that also have intracellular actions.

The biological effects produced by intracellular actions are referred as intracrine effects while those produced by binding to cell surface receptors are called endocrine, autocrine or paracrine effects depending on the origin of the hormone. The intracrine effect of some of the peptide/protein hormones are similar to their endocrine, autocrine or paracrine effects; while these effects are different for some other hormones.
a receptor is a protein molecule, embedded in either the plasma membrane or cytoplasm of a cell, to which a mobile signaling (or "signal") molecule may attach. A molecule which binds to a receptor is called a "ligand," and may be a peptide (such as a neurotransmitter), a hormone, a pharmaceutical drug, or a toxin, and when such binding occurs, the receptor undergoes a conformational change which ordinarily initiates a cellular response. However, some ligands merely block receptors without inducing any response (e.g. antagonists). Ligand-induced changes in receptors result in physiological changes which constitute the biological activity of the ligands.
examples include:
Activation of eosinophils by microbe-derived molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLR) potentially provides the link between microbe-induced innate immune responses and the exacerbation of allergic inflammation. We investigated the expression of TLRs and the effect of their ligands on human eosinophils
The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which cholecystokinin (CCK) and other secretagogues regulate pancreatic acinar function are more complex than originally realized. CCK couples through heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gq family to lead to an increase in intracellular free Ca2+, which shows spatial and temporal patterns of signaling. The actions of Ca2+ are mediated in part by activation of a number of Ca2+-activated protein kinases and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. By the process of exocytosis the intracellular messengers Ca2+, diacylglycerol, and cAMP activate the release of the zymogen granule content in a manner that is poorly understood. This fusion event most likely involves SNARE and Rab proteins present on zymogen granules and cellular membrane domains. More likely related to nonsecretory aspects of cell function, CCK also activates three MAPK cascades leading to activation of ERKs, JNKs, and p38 MAPK. Although the function of these pathways is not well understood, ERKs are probably related to cell growth, and through phosphorylation of hsp27, p38 can affect the actin cytoskeleton. The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is important for regulation of acinar cell protein synthesis because it leads to both activation of p70S6K and regulation of the availability of eIF4E in response to CCK. CCK also activates a number of tyrosyl phosphorylation events including that of p125FAK and other proteins associated with focal adhesions.
intracellular signaling completes with the study of some signaling pathways like





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